Updated section of
NE Pacific Invert. Species List


Sponges of the cold temperate NE Pacific


Bill Austin1, Bruce Ott2, Neil McDaniel3 and Paula Romagosa4


1.  Marine Ecology Centre & Khoyatan Marine Laboratory; 2. Khoyatan Marine Laboratory;  3. McDaniel PhotographyVancouver, BC;  4.  Marine Ecology Centre.                  


Khoyatan Marine Laboratory houses a moderately large collection of NE Pacific Sponges which have been worked on by Bill Austin and Bruce Ott.  A list of 260 species from central California to southern Alaska is recorded by Austin (1985).  Austin and Ott provided a key to 130 species known from British Columbia and Washington (Kozloff, 1987).    


This annotated list of approximately 290 species is an update of the 1985 list noted above. The 142 highlighted species names include photos of specimens and 90 species names flagged by SEM have scanning electromicrographs of skeletal spicules.  These can serve as a pictorial supplement to existing descriptions and keys. The list includes some undescribed species (unnamed) but is not intended as a medium for formal species descriptions.  Scanning electron micrographs were taken by Bill Austin at Simon Fraser University and at the University of Victoria, while underwater photographs were largely taken by Neil McDaniel (McDaniel Photography, Vancouver, BC).


Curt Smecher has produced a list of BC sponges with a synopsis of systematic characters and distribution www.interchg.ubc.ca/csmecher on his web site. Welton Lee, David Elvin and Henry Reiswig have produced a major guide to the sponges of California.  We hope that, ultimately, a revised list will incorporate the work of all spongologists along the NE Pacific coast.   Please note that the list at this time is a draft copy subject to updates and corrections.



Many people helped in field surveys and collection including: Myriam Preker (Bamfield Marine Station), Mike LeBlanc & Ray Anderson (Univ. British Columbia), Jeff Marliave (Vancouver Public Aquarium), Verena Tunnicliffe (Univ. Victoria), Kim Conway & J Vaughn Barrie (Pacific Geoscience Centre),  Henry Reiswig  (McGill Univ.),  Welton Lee (California Acad. Sciences),   Bjørn Gulliksen (Univ. Tromsø), and Manfred Krautter (Univ. Stuttgart). Jeff Goddard (Univ. Cal, Santa Barbara, and Jerry Backus (Univ. Southern California) who provided some updates on his collections in the Puget Sound region in the 1960s.


Support on scanning electron microscopes was provided by Mary Lou Malott, Vic Bourne (Simon Fraser Univ.) and Jack Dietrich (Univ. Victoria)Photos other than those of the authors were provided by Rick Harbo (Fisheries & Oceans, Canada),  Brent Cooke and Phil Lambert (BC Provincial  Museum), Ron Long (Simon Fraser Univ.) and Bernard Hanby.    Access to Museum material was provided by Kelly Sendall (BC Provincial Museum), Frank Bernard (Pacific Biological Station),   Ralph Brinkhurst & Doug Moore (Institute of Ocean Sciences), and Rob Van Syoc (California Academy of Sciences).   Production of this list for our web site and on CDs was performed by Greg Bate (Live PC), Laura Robson, Jackie Hendrix, Kim Kyba, Eve Robinson, John Austin (NuDeal.com) and Paula Romagosa.   


Selected references 

Austin, WC. 1985.  An annotated checklist of marine invertebrates in the cold temperate northeast Pacific.  Khoyatan, Cowichan Bay, B.C. 642p.  [sponges pp. 21-42]


Boury-Esnault, N. and K. Rützler eds. (1997).  Thesaurus of sponge morphology.   Smithsonian Contrib. to Zool. 596. 55p.   


Hooper, J. & RWM. Van Soest.  2002.  Systema Porifera.  A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Kluwer Academic/Plenum. New York.  2 vol.  1708,  xlviii pp.


Kozloff, E. 1987.  Marine invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest.  University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. 511p. [sponges by Austin and Ott pp. 6-31 plus p. 487 in 1996  paperback edition].


Lamb, A & WP. Hanby. 2005.  Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest.  Harbour Publ., Madiera Park, BC.  398p.

[Sponges pp. 60-80].


Lee, WL, DW. Elvin, & Henry Reiswig. (in press Fall 2006).  The Sponges of California. A Guide and Key to the Marine Sponges of California. Vermont Information Systems. Shelburne, VT


Morris, RH, DP. Abbott, & E.C. Haderlie.  1980.  Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford Univ. Press., Stanford, CA. 690p.  [sponges by Bakus & Abbott pp. 21-39].


Smith, RI. & JT. Carlton (eds.).  1975.  Light's manual: intertidal invertebrates of the central California Coast.  Univ. California Press, Berkeley, CA 717p. [sponges by Hartman pp. 32-64]




*** Images and links will be active soon.***  

Code to images: blue = hyperlink to photo(s) of whole animal; 

[SEM] = 1+ scanning electron images of spicules.

Abbreviations: Alask=Alaska, Aleut=Aleutians, Aleut=Aleutians, Arc=Arctic, Atl=Atlantic BC=British Columbia, BerS=Bering Sea, Cosmo=Cosmopolitan, Ind=Indian Ocean, N,C,S Cal=North, Central, Southern California, Oreg=Oregon, Pac=Pacific Ocean, Wash=Washington

Littoral=Intertidal, Shallow= less than 200 m deep, Deep=more than 200 m deep;  

*xxx *  denotes a locality for new records.

aff = close to;  cf = compare with 

Families and genera are alphabetically ordered. 







Family Hyalonematidae

Hyalonema ovuliferum Schulze 1899

            South Alaska;  deep


Hyalonema populiferum Schulze 1899    [SEM]

            BC,  Southern California;  deep *West of Skidegate Inlet, BC: WCA



Family Pheronematidae

Poliopogon mendocino Reiswig 1999

            NCal; deep



Family Monoraphididae





Family Fieldingidae



Order LYSSACINOSIDA  [Lyssacinosa] 

Family Euplectellidae

Holascus undulatus Schulze 1899

            NW Pacific, S Alaska; deep


Nubicaulus careyi Reiswig 1999

            N Cal.; deep



Family Leucopsacasidae [Placopegmatidae]

Leucopsacus scoliodocus Ijima 1903

            BC,  W Pacific, N Atlantic *Jervis Inlet, BC: H. Reiswig


Placopegma species? Schulze 1899

            Washington; deep



Family Rossellidae [Lanuginellidae, in part]

Acanthascus new species

      BC-Washington; shallow N to Burke Channel, BC: WCA


Acanthascus cf. platei Schulze 1899

            BC, S California; shallow; *Mittlenatch I, BC: WCA


Aulosaccus ijimae  (Schulze 1899)

            S Alaska; deep; [Calycosaccus]


Bathydoris cf. echinatus

            Wash, deep *Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge: WCA


Caulophacus species

            Oreg-Wash; deep


Rhabdocalyptus asper Schulze 1899

            Oregon, S California; deep *off Oregon:WCA [Acanthascus]


Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni (Lambe 1893)  [SEM]

            Alaska-S California; shallow; [Bathydorus, Acanthascus]


Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze 1899

      Alaska; deep [Acanthascus]


Rhabdocalyptus tenuis Schulze 1899

            Wash; deep;  [Acanthosaccus, Acanthascus]


Staurocalyptus dowlingi (Lambe 1894) [SEM]

            Alaska-S California; shallow; [Rhabdocalyptus, Acanthascus]


Staurocalyptus fasciculatus Schulze 1899

      Washington; deep;  *Cobb Seamount, Washington: WCA  [Acanthascus]


Staurocalyptus solidus Schulze 1899

            BC-S California;  deep;  *off Dixon Entrance, BC: WCA [Acanthascus]


Staurocalyptus species cf. roeperi Schulze 1886

            Washington;  deep;  *Juan de Fuca Ridge, Washington: WCA/H. Reiswig                 [Acanthascus]



Order HEXACTINOSIDA  [Hexactinosa]

Family Aphrocallistidae

Aphrocallistes vastus Schulze 1887  [SEM]

            NW Pacific-Bering Sea-Alaska-Mexico;  shallow; [A. whiteavesianus                     Lamb 1893] 


Heterochone calyx (Schulze 1887)  [SEM]

            Japan-Bering Sea-Alaska-S California;  shallow;  [Chonelasma]


Heterochone tenerum (Schulze 1887)            

            Bering Sea,  S California;  shallow;  [Heterochone]



Family Craticulariiidae


Family Cribrospongiidae


Family  Dactylocalycidae


Family Euretidae [Coscinosporidae;  Chonelasmidae]

Lefroyella species?

            BC;  deep:  *Explorer Ridge, BC: WCA



Family Farreidae

Farrea aculeata Schulze 1899

            Washington; deep


Farrea occa Bowerbank 1862

            BC;  “Cosmopolitan in deep water”;  *Explorer Seamount, BC:WCA



Family Tretodictyidae




Family Aulocalycidae


Family Uncinateridae



Order LYCHNISCOSIDA (Lychiniscosa;  Dictyonina, part)

Family  Aulocystidae (Diapleuridae)



Subphylum:  CELLULARIA

Family Clathrinidae
Clathrina cf. coriacea (Montague 1818)
            BC, SCal,; shallow  *Portland Inlet, BC : WCA*


Clathrina species of Hartman 1975
            BC,CCal; Littoral; *Barkley Sound, BC:WCA*


*Guancha cf. blanca Miklucho-Maclay 1868

            BC, SCal, *Portland Canal, BC:WCA



Family Leucaltidae


Family Leucascidae


Family Leucettidae


Family Levinellidae


Family Soleneiscidae





Family Lelapiellidae


Family Murrayonidae


Family Paramurrayonidae




Family Achramorphidae


Family Amphoriscidae

Leucilla nuttingi (Urban 1902)

          Aleut-CCal; BajaCal?; littoral; (Rhabdodermella);  Amchitka, Alask:BO


Family  Grantiidae

Grantia comoxensis (Lambe 1895)

BC; shallow; [known only from holotype]


Grantia species aff. compressa (Fabricius 1780)   [SEM]

BC,CCalifornia; littoral; ”Execution Rock Cave, BC:WCA"


Leucandra apicalis Urban 1905

         S-C California; littoral; [Leuconia]


Leucandra heathi Urban 1905

Aleutians-S California; littoral ; [Leuconia]; *Steep I, BC:WCA*


Leucandra new species cf. levis (Polejaef 1884)

            BC; shallow; "Fitz Hugh Sound, BC:WCA"


Leucandra pyriformis Lambe 1904

Aleutians-BC, Japan; shallow; [Leuconia]


Leucandra taylori Lambe 1900  [SEM]

Aleutians-BC; littoral ; [Leuconia]


Sycandra species cf. utriculus (Schmidt 1870)

BC; shallow; *Goose I., BC:WCA



Family Heteropiidae

Heteropia species cf. striata Hozawa 1916

         BC; deep; *Dixon Entrance, BC:WCA


Family Leucosolenidae

Leucosolenia species cf. convalaria (Haeckel 1872)
            BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BL-:WCA*


Leucosolenia species cf. kagoshimensis (Hozawa 1929)
            BC; deep; *Endeavor Ridge, BC, 2400m:WCA*


Leucosolenia eleanor Urban 1905
            Aleut-SCal; littoral; [L. botyryoides of Burton 1963]


Leucosolenia species cf. lucasi Dendy 1891

BC; shallow; *Viner Pt, Rei d I, BC:WCA*


Leucosolenia nautilia de Laubenfels 1930

BC-SCal; littoral; [L. botryoides of Burton, 1963] *Bamfield,  BC:WCA*



Family Staurorrhaphidae



Family Scycanthidae

Scycantha new species

BC, Washington?; littoral; [=? Scypha raphanus of de Laubenfels 1961;                Tenthrenodes]; *Execution Rock Cave, BC:WCA



Family Sycettidae

Sycon coactum Urban 1905

CCal; littoral: [Scypha coacta]


Sycon compactum Lambe 1893

            Aleutians-BC, Japan; shallow;  [Scypha  compacta]


Sycon mundulum Lambe 1893

BC,Japan,NWAtlantic; shallow; [Scypha mundula]; *Jervis Inlet, 



Sycon protectum Lambe 1896

BC,NW Atlantic; littoral; [Scypha protecta]




Family Lelapiidae


Family Minchinellidae


Family Petrobionidae




Family Baeriidae

Leucopsila species cf. stylifera (Schmidt 1870)  [SEM]

Aleutians,BC; shallow; *Dixon Entrance, BC:WCA


Family Lepidoleuconidae


Family Trichogypsiidae






Family Oscarellidae [in Plakinidae by some]

Oscarella carmela Muricy & Pearse 2004

       CCal, NCal, BC in Vancouver Aquarium Science Centre



Family Plakinidae [Halinidae; incl. Corticiidae]

Plakina atka Lehnert, Stone & Heimler 2005   [SEM]

      Aleut‑BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA*


Plakina species cf. brachylopha Topsent 1928

BC; shallow; *Portland Canal, BC, 200m:WCA*


Plakina monolopha Schulze 1880

BC; shallow; *Endeavor Ridge, BC, 2400m:WCA*


Plakina species cf. trilopha Schulze 1880

        *Saanich Inlet, BC 90m: WCA


?Plakinastrella new species

SA1ask; littoral; *Windfall I., Alaska:WCA*






Family  Ancorinidae (Stellettidae) (incl.  Coppatiidae in part)

Penares cortius de Laubenfels 1930   [SEM]

SAlask‑BC‑SCal, Baja?, Jap; littoral


Penares saccharis (de Laubenfels 1930)

        CCal;  littoral (may = Penares cortius)


Stelletta clarella de Laubenfels 1930  [SEM]

SAlask-BC‑Mex, Chile; littoral; *Dixon I, BC:WCA*  (=Stelletta estrella de Laubenfels 1930)


Stelletta validissima Thiele 1898

Jap‑BerS, BC; shallow


Stelletta species cf. normani (Sollas 1880)

BC; shallow; *Kitasu Bay, BC:WCA/BO (Dragmastra)



Family Calthropellidae


Family Geodiidae

Geodia mesotriaena Lendenfeld 1910  [SEM]

SAlask‑SCal; shallow; [G. agassizi] Lendenfeld 1910; G. breviana

        Lendenfeld 1910; Cydonium muelleri of Lambe 1893, non G. mesotriaena

        Hentschel 1929; non? littoral Geodia in SCal


Geodinella robusta Lendenfeld 1910  [SEM]

        Jap‑Aleut‑BC‑SCal; shallow  (Geodia per Systema p. 138,  Sidonops per      

       Systema p. 141)


Sidonops angulata Lendenfeld 1910

C‑SCal; shallow; [=? S. bicolor Lendenfeld 1910; Geodia?]



Family Pachastrellidae [Astrostreptidae;  incl. Theneidae]

Poecillastra japonica (Thiele 1898)  [SEM]

NWPac‑BerS‑BC,NAtl; shallow; [P. compressa japonica OF Koltun;



Poecillastra tenuilaminaris (Sollas 1886)

Japan, BC; C-SCal  shallow; *off Barkley Sound, BD:WCA* [Poecillastra rickettsi de  Laubenfels 1930] [might be placed in Volcanella based on presence of cribriporal oscula surrounded by palisade of oxea in some specimens]



Family Thrombidae




Family Tetillidae [incl. Craniellidae]

Craniella arb (de Laubenfels 1930)   [SEM]

CCal‑BajaCal; littoral [Tetilla]; probably = C. villosa:WCA/BO


Craniella spinosa Lambe 1894   [SEM]

Aleut‑BC; shallow; [Tetilla]


Craniella villosa Lambe 1894   [SEM]

Aleut‑BC; littoral


Tetilla species A of Hartman 1975

CCal; littoral

Tetilla sp. B of Hartman 1975

        CCal;  littoral



Family Samidae


Family Scleritodermidae


Family Spirasigmidae



“Order LITHISTIDA” [DESMOPHORIDA] [problematic Order as likely polyphyletic]

Family Azoricidae


Family Corallistidae


Family Desmanthidae


Family Isoraphiniidae


Family Leiodermatiidae (Azoricidae)


Family Macandrewiidae


Family Neopeltidae (Siphonidiidae)


Family Phymaraphiniidae


Family Phymatellidae


Family Pleromidae


Family Scleritodermidae


Family Siphonidiidae


Family Theonellidae


Family Vetulinidae




Family Acanthochaetetidae


Family Alectonidae


Family Clionaidae [old name Clionidae is syn. with Pteropod family]

Cliona species cf. argus Thiele 1898

BC, Jap; littoral; *Quatsino Sd. BC:WCA/BO*


Clionacaliforniana  (de Laubenfels 1932)

SAlask‑Baja Cal; littoral  [Cliona celata var. californiana de Laubenfels 1932;  Pseudosuberites pseudos] Dickinson 1945


Cliona aff.  lobata Hancock 1849

BC, CCal. Atl; littoral; *Nootka I, BC:WCA/BO*


Cliona species cf. warreni

BC; littoral; *Gibralter I. Barkley Sd, BC:WCA/BO*


Cliona species of Hartman 1975

CCal ; littoral



Family Hemiasterallidae



Family Polymastiidae

Polymastia kurilensis Koltun 1962   [SEM]

Jap‑BerS‑SAlask; shallow


 Polymastia pacifica Lambe 1894    [SEM] 

Aleut‑BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Polymastia pachymastia de Laubenfels 1932

Aleut‑CCal; littoral;         


Polymastia sol (Schmidt 1910) pacifica Koltun 1970

SAlask, Wash; deep; *Endeavor Ridge, Wash:WCA/BO*


Polymastia species B (aff. mamillaris (Muller 1806))

BC; deep; *Observatory Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Sphaerotylus species aff. sceptrum Koltun 1970

Wash; deep; *Endeavor Ridge, Wash, 2500m:WCA/BO*


Weberella new species cf. bursa

BC; shallow; *Stubbs I, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Spirastrellidae [Choanitidae]

Spheciospongia confoederata de Laubenfels 1930

CCal‑BajaCal; littoral


Family Stylocordylidae [Podospongiidael


Family Placospongiidae


Family Sollasellidae


Family Suberitidae

Aaptos species

    *S. of Fleming I., BC; 63m:WCA


Plicatellopsis amphispicula (de Laubenfels 1961)   [SEM]

   BC‑Wash; shallow; [in Raspailia by some;  may include Homaxinella  

   subdula OF Kultun 1959 in part]; *Graham I, BC:WCA/BO*  (transferred 

   from Syringella based on Porifera Systema 2002 p. 232)


Prosuberites species of Hartman 1975

CCal; littoral


Prosuberites new species

BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/60*


Protosuberites new species

        BC; littoral; *Tilly Pt, BC:WCA/BO* (from Laxosuberites which not valid 

        genus per Porifera Systema 2002 p. 235)


Pseudosuberites carnosus [Johnson 18421    [SEM]

BC,WPac NAtl; shallow; (Suberites); *Horseshoe Bay, BC:WCA/BO*


Pseudosuberites new species

BC; shallow; *Saanich Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Rhizaxinella gadus (de Laubenfels 1926)

CCal;  shallow; [Suberites]


Suberites domuncula (Olivi 1792) forma latus Lambe 1893  [SEM]

BerS‑Wash; littoral; [Suberites latus Lambe 1893; Choanites suberea var.

lata of de Laubenfels 1961,  Suberites ficus of Bakus 1987]


Suberites species to be renamed   [SEM]

SAlask‑SCal; littoral; [Suberites montiniger of Lambe 1895; Suberites

ficus of authors in NE Pacific in part:WCA/BO]


Suberites montiniger  Carter 1880    [SEM]

NWPac‑BerS‑BC; shallow; [S. concinnus Lambe 1895]


Suberites simplex Lambe 1894

BC; shallow


Suberites suberea (Johnson 1842) latus Lambe 1893 OF deLaubenfels 1932  [SEM]

C‑SCal; shallow; [Suberites ficus of authors in NE Pacific in part]



Family Tethyidae

Tethya californiana (de Laubenfels, 1932)   [SEM]

      BC‑Gulf Calif, littoral, [T. aurantia of authors in NEP]


Family Timeidae


Family Trachycladidae




Family Chondrosidae




Order VERTICILLITIDA [“Sphinctozoa”]

Family Cryptocoeliidae




Family Agelasidae


Family Astroscleridae




Family Axinellidae

Auletta new species   [SEM]

SAlask‑BC; shallow; *Dixon Entrance, BC:WCA/BO*


Axinella species

BC; shallow; *Q. Charlotte Sd., BC:WCA*


Dragmacidon new species

BC; littoral; *Execution Rock, BC:WCA/BO* (Pseudaxinella)


Phakellia species aff. berinqensis (Hentschell 192B)

BC; shallow; *Pine I, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Heteroxyidae (Desmoxyidae)

Halicnemia patera Bowerbank 1864

BC,NAtl; shallow; *Saanich Inlet, BC:WCA*


Higginsia species

BC, CCal; littoral; *Arbutus I, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Dictyonellidae

?Acanthella species cf. cristagilli (Dendy 1924)

        Rennell Sd., Queen Charlotte Is., BC; Shallow;  MleBlanc


Stylissa stipitata de Laubenfels 1961

SAlask‑BC‑Wash; shallow; *Forester I, Alaska:WCA/BO*



Family Halichondridae

Axinyssa  tuscarus (Ristau 1978)

N‑CCal; shallow; [Axinomimus]


Ciocalypta penicillus Bowerbank 1864

BC, Pac, Atl, Ind; shallow; *BC:WCA/BO*


Eumastia sitiens Schmidt 1870

BerS‑BC; shallow; [subgenus of Halichondria per Systema Porifera p. 800; Pellina]


Halichondria bowerbanki Burton 1930

BC‑CCal,NAtl; littoral; (H. panicea of authors in part NEPacl)

*Bamfield, BC:WCA/BO*


Halichondria species aff. fibrosa Fristedt 1887

BC; shallow; *Saanich Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Halichondria species cf. genetrix Schmidt 1870

SAlask; littoral; *Windfall 1, Alaska:WCA/BO*


Halichondria lambei Brdnsted 1933

Aleut, BC; deep; *Gordon Channel, BC:WCA/BO*


Halichondria panicea (Pallas 1766)   [SEM]

Alask‑Mex, NPac, NAtl; littoral


Halichondria new species? cf. bowerbanki

BC; littoral; *Bamfield, BC:WCA/HMReiswig*


Halichondria new species

BC; littoral; *Bradys Beach, BC:WCA/BO*


Leucophloeus actites Ristau 1978

NCal; littoral [in Ciocalypta per Systema Porifera p. 796]


Leucophloeus new species cf. subacerata (Ridley & Dandy 1886)    [SEM]

BC; shallow; *Knight Inlet, BC:WCA/BO* [in Ciocalypta per Systema Porifera

p. 796]


Topsentia disparilis (Lambe 1894)

NWPac‑BerS‑BC; shallow; [from Halichondria:WCA]; *Barkley Sd, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Hymeniacidonidae [included in Halichondridae by  Systema Porifera p. 787]

Hymeniacidon aff. perleve Montague 1818

BC, CCal, littoral; *Departure Bay, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymeniacidon sinapium de Laubenfels 1930

C‑BajaCal; littoral;


Hymeniacidon species cf. sinapium OF de Laubenfels 1930 in part

BC; littoral; [similar to form described from southern California)

*Trial Islands, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymeniacidon ungodon de Laubenfels 1932

BC‑CCal; littoral; *Execution Rock, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymeniacidon species cf. Stylotella columella (Bowerbank 1866)

BC; shallow; Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Rhaphoxya species

BC; deep; *Fisher Channel, BC:WCA/BO*


? Spongosorites species cf. annandalei (Ferrer‑Hernandez 1922)

BC; shallow;  [Oxeostilon] *Trevor Channel, BC:WCA/BO*


Stylinos new species    [SEM]

BC; littoral; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO* [Hymeniacidon per Systema Porifera p. 664]






Family Cladorhizidae

Asbestopluma biserialis Ridley & Dendy 1886

BC, BajaCal, SPac; deep; *Explorer Ridge, BC:WCA*


Asbestopluma occidentalis (Lambe 1893)   [SEM]

NWPac‑BerS‑BC,SCal; shallow; [Lycopodina; Esperella, A. lycopodium

(Levinsen 1886) OF Koltun in part; A. hadalis Levi 1964]


Asbestopluma species cfbihamatifera Carter 1876

BC; deep; *Explorer Ridge, BC:WCA*


Asbestopluma species cf. furcata Lundbeck 1905

BC; deep; *Explorer Ridge, BC:WCA*



Family Desmacellidae  (Biemnidae,  Sigmaxinellidae)

Biemna rhadia de Laubenfels 1930   [SEM]

SAlask‑GulfCal; shallow; *Kodiak Alaska:WCA/BO*


Biemna species cf. megalosigma Hentschel 1912

BC; shallow; *Saanich Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Desmacella annexa (Schmidt, 1870)

        [Biemna, Tylodesma]  Jervis Inlet, BC 384m:WCA


Desmacella austini  Lehnert, Conway, Barrie, Krautter 2005.

BC,CCal; deep; [Dvagabunda OF de Laubenfels 1932 non D. vagabundaSchmidt 1870];   *Fitz Hugh Sound, BC:WCA/BO*, shallow


Desmacella species

       Anthony I, BC:WCA



Family Esperiopsidae

Esperiopsis species cf. stipula

BC; shallow; *Burke Channel, BC:WCA/BO*


Esperiopsis species cf. villosa (Carter 1874)

BC; deep; *Fisher Channel, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Guitarridae

Guitarra abbotti Lee 1987

        CCal, shallow



Family Hamacanthidae

Hamacantha (Vomerula) hyaloderma (de Laubenfels 1932)    [SEM]

BC‑CCal; littoral [Zygherpe]


Pozziella species aff. clavisaepta Topsent 1896

        Wash; deep; *Endeavor Ridge, Wash, 2500m:WCA*


Family Isodictyidae

Neoesperiopsis digitata (Miklucho‑Maclay 1870)   [SEM]

Jap‑BerS‑BC; shallow; [Isodictya per Systema Porifera p. 704; Esperiopsis; Esperiopsis quatsinoensis Lambe 1893; Isodictya quatsinoensis of Hartman 1958 part; Amphilectis]


Neoesperiopsis infundibula Koltun 1956

        NWPac‑Alask‑BC; deep [Esperiapsis digitata infundibula Koltun 1956

        Isodictya per Systema Porifera p. 704]  *Dean Channel, BC:WCA/BD*


Neoesperiopsis rigida (Lambe 1893)   [SEM]

SAlask‑BC; littoral; [Isodictya per Systema Porifera p. 704a; Esperiopsis; Isodictya quatsinoensis of Hartman 1958, part]


Neoesperiopsis vancouverensis (Lambe 1892)  [SEM]

BC; shallow; [Isodictya per Systema Porifera p. 704; Esperiopsis; Isodictya quatsinoensis of Hartman 1958, part]



Family Mycalidae

Mycale adhaerens (Lambe 1894)   [SEM]

BerS‑Wash,NEAtl; littoral; [Esperella]


Mycale bamfieldense Reiswig & Kaiser 1989

            BC, littoral  (in subgenus Aegograpila per Sytema Porifera p. 679)


Mycale bellabellensis (Lambe 1905)    [SEM]

        BC‑CCal; shallow; [Esperella]


Mycale hispida (Lambe 1893)    [SEM]

NEPac‑Aleut‑Wash; littoral; [Esperella]


Mycale lingua (Bowerbank 1866)    [SEM]

Arc‑Aleut‑BC, Atl, Antarc; deep; [Esperella; non Mycale lingua of Bakus 1966 in Wash.]; *Knight Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Mycale lobata (Bowerbank 1866)   [SEM]

NWPac‑Alask‑BC,Atl; littoral; [Mycalecarmia; Esperella modesta Lambe 1894; Mycale babici of de Laubenfels 1949]; *off Vancouver 1, BC:WCA/BO*


Mycale loveni (Fristedt 1887)

NWPac‑BerS‑BC; deep; [Mycalecarmia; Clathrial]; *Cape St. James, BC:WCA/BO*


Mycale macginitiei de Laubenfels 1930   [SEM]

BC‑CCal, Jap‑Korea; littoral; (Carmia); *Anthony 1. BC:WCA/BO*


Mycale richardsoni Bakus 1966    [SEM]

BC‑Wash; shallow


Mycale toporoki Koltun 1958

        Jap, NWPac‑BerS, CCal


Mycale cf toporoki Koltun 1958

BC‑Wash; littoral; [Esperella lingua of Lambe 1894; Mycale lingua of Bakus 1966 in Wash]


Paresperella psila de Laubenfels 1930    [SEM]

BC‑SCal; littoral; [Mycale; Esperella serratohamata of Lambe]; *Long Beach, BC:WCA/BO*




Family Chondropsidae

Psammoclema new species

BC, Littoral (Psammopemma) *Execution Rock Cave,  Barkley Sound: WCA/BO



Family  Coelosphaeridae

Chaetodoryx new species

BC; shallow; *Bowie Seamount, Wash.:WCA/BO*


Ectyodoryx species

BC; deep; *Fitz Hugh Sd, BC:WCA/BD* [as subgenus of Lissodendoryx per Systema Porifera p. 544]


Forcepia (Forcepia) elvini Lee 2001

            CCal,  shallow


Forcepia (Forcepia) hartmani Lee 2001    [SEM]

BC, CCal; littoral [Lissodendoryx firma of Hartman 1975 in part; Forcepia sp. of Austin & Ott, 1987]; *Seapool Rocks, BC:WCA/BO*


Forcepia (Forcepia) hymena  (de Laubenfels 1930)

CCal; deep [Wilsa]


Inflatella species    [SEM]

BC; shallow; *Barkley Sd, BC:WCA/BO*


Jones amaknakensis (Lambe 1895)   [SEM]

BerS‑CCal; littoral; [Myxilla; Lissodendoryx noxiosa de Laubenfels 1932; Jones is a synonym of Lyssodendoryx per Systema Porifera p. 540]


Lissodendoryx firma (Lambe 1895)  [SEM]

BerS‑CCal; littoral; [Myxilla; Lissodendoryx noxiosa de Laubenfels 1932]


Lissodendoryx kyma de Laubenfels 1930

CCal; deep; [Merriamum]


?Lissodendoryx rex de Laubenfels 1932

CCal; deep


Lissodendoryx new species

BC; littoral; *Bradys Beach, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Crambeidae

Monanchora alaskensis (Lambe 1895)  [SEM] 

BerS‑BC; littoral; [ChondrocladiaStelodoryx, non Stelodoryx alaskensis of Koltun1958]; *Pine I. BC:WCA/BO*


Monanchora pulchra (Lambe 1895)   [SEM]

NWPac‑Alask; shallow; [Chondrocladia]



Family Crellidae

Crellomima species?

BC; deep; *Fitz Hugh Sd, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Dendoricellidae



Family Hymedesmiidae [including Anchinoidae]

Acanthancora cyanocrypta (de Laubenfels 1930)

BC,C‑SCal; littoral; [HymenamphiastraHymedesmia  by some]  *Execution Rock Cave, BC:WCA*


Arndtanchora new species    [SEM]

BC;  shallow [Hymenanchora per Systema Porifera p.606] *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Hamigera new species    [SEM]      

BC‑Wash; littoral; [Lissodendoryx aff. kyma of Bakus 1966]; *Observatory Inlet, BC:WCA/80*


Hymedesanisochela rayae Bakus 1966   [SEM]

BC‑CCal; littoral; [in Hymedesmia by some, in Iophon per Systema Porifera

p. 424] *Anthony I, BC:WCA *


Hymedesmia species cf. consanguinea Lundbeck 1910

BC; shallow; *Vananda Cove, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymedesmia species cf. procumbens Lundbeck 1910  

BC; shallow; *Soquel Bank, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymedesmia species A of Hartman 1975

BC, CCal; littoral; *Anthony I, BC: WCA


Hymedesmia species B of Hartman 1975

CCal;  littoral


Hymedesmia species C of Ott & Austin

BC; shallow; *Vananda Cove, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymedesmia species D of Ott & Austin   [SEM]

BC; deep; *Portland Canal, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymedesmia species E of Austin

         BC, littoral, *Chad I., BC: WCA [green]


?Kirkpatrickia  topsenti (de Laubenfels 1930)   [SEM]

BC, CCal‑SCal; littoral; [Tedania; Lissodendoryx; Tedania toxicalis de Laubenfels 1930]: *Anthony I, BC:WCA


Phorbas species aff. behringi (Koltun 1958)

SAlask; shallow; [Lissodendoryx, Merriamum]; *Kodiak I, Alaska:WCA/BO*


Phorbas oxeota (Koltun 1958)

NWPac, BC; shallow; [Lissodendoryx; Merriamum] *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Phorbas species aff. Lissodendoryx ivanovi (Koltun 1958)

BC; shallow; [Merriamum] *Queen Charlotte Sd, BC:WCA/BO*


Phorbas species

CCal; *CCal:WCA/WLee* [Stylostichon]


Phorbas species

       BC;  *Cobb Seamount, 290m: WCA


Plocamionida lyoni  (Bakus 1966)   [SEM]

BC‑Wash, CCal; littoral; [Hymendectyon] *Pt. Lobos, Ca:WCA/WLee*


Podotuberculum hoffmanni Bakus 1966   [SEM]

BC‑Wash; littoral; [Phorbis in Systema Porifera p. 585]*Tasu Inlet, BC:WCA/80*


Stylopus arndti (de Laubenfels 1930)     [SEM]

BC, CCal; littoral; [?Astylinifer; subgenus of Hymedesmia per Systema Porifera

p. 582] *Execution Rock, BC:WCA/BO*


Stylopus aff. primitiva (Lundbeck 1910)

BC; shallow; [Hymedesmia primitival]; Howe Sd, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Myxillidae [incl. Acarniidae]

Ectyomyxilla  parasitica (Lambe 1893)   [SEM]

BC; shallow; [a subgenus of Myxilla per Systema Porifera p. 614; Ectyodoryx; non M. parasitica of de Laubenfels 1932; only known from type]


Hymenanchora species?

BC: shallow; *Burke Channel, BC:WCA/80*


Myxilla agennes deLaubenfels 1930



Myxilla behringensis Lambe 1895

SAlask-BC; littoral


Myxilla incrustans (Esper 1805‑1814)  [SEM]

Jap‑BerS‑SCal,NAtl; littoral; [Myxilla rosacea Lambe 1893; Myxilla barentsiLambe 1895]


Myxilla lacunosa Lambe 1893    [SEM]

Aleut‑BC; shallow [in subgenus Burtonanchora per Systema Porifera p. 613]


Plocamiancora  igzo (de Laubenfels 1932)

BC, CCal‑Mex; littoral; [Plocamia, Plocamissa]  *Houston-Stewart Channel, Q. Ch. Is., BC:WCA


Stelotrochota hartmani Bakus 1966   [SEM]

BC‑Wash; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO* [Ectyonopsis per Systema Porifera p. 603]



Family Phellodermidae

Phelloderma bruuni (Levi 1964)

      SAlask, SPac; deep [Abyssocladia]



Family Phoriospongiidae



Family Tedaniidae [in Myxillidae by some]

Tedania fragilis Lambe 1895   [SEM]

NWPac‑Alask‑Wash; shallow


Tedania gurjanovae Koltun 1958    [SEM]

NWPac, BC‑Wash; shallow; *Mendocino State Pk, Cal:WCA/WLee*


Tedania species cf. microrhaphidiophora Burton 1935 [SEM] 

Alask‑BC; shallow; *Howe Sd, BC:WCA/BO*


Tedania obscurata  (de Laubenfels 1930)

Wash, CCal ; Littoral [Tedanione]




Family Acarnidae [incl. Iophonidae ]

Acarnus erithaceus de Laubenfels 1927    [SEM]

SAlask‑GulfCal; littoral; *Forester 1, Alaska:WCA/BO*


Iophon chelifer Ridley & Dendy 1886 var. californiana de Laubenfels 1932) [SEM]

BC‑SCal; shallow; [I. pattersoni OF Bakus 1966 in NEPac]


Iophon piceus (Vosmaer 1881) var. pacifica Koltun 1958  [SEM]  

NWPac, BC; shallow; *Canoe Islet, BC:WCA/BO*


Wigginsia wigginsi? de Laubenfels 1953    [SEM]

        BC; shallow; *Dixon Entrance, BC:WCA/BO*



Family Microcionidae [including Clathriidae, Ophlitaspongidae]

Anaata brepha de Laubenfels 1930

BC-CCal; littoral; [in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 440]; Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Anaata spongigartina de Laubenfels 1930     [SEM]

BC,CCal; littoral; [in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 440]; Anthony I. BC:WCA/BO*


Antho (Acarnia) karykina (de Laubenfels 1927)    [SEM]                

BC‑SCal; [Plocamia]  littoral;  *Anthony 1, BC:WCA/BO*


Antho species cf. Plocamia cf ambigua (Bowerbank, 1866)

        BC, deep *Hecate Strait, BC sta. 5: WCA


Antho (Acarnia) illgi (Bakus 1966)    [SEM]

BC‑SCal; littoral; [Plocamilla][Louis Creek, BC:WCA/BO*


Antho (Antho) jia (de Laubenfels 1930)

CCal; deep [Jia]


Antho (Acarnia) lambei (Burton 1935)    [SEM]

BC‑SCal; littoral; [Plocamia manaarensis of Lambe 1895;  Plocamilla zimmeri Bakus 1966]


Antho (antho) lithophoenix (de Laubenfels 1927)

C‑SCal; littoral; [Isociona; Plocamia]


Anthoarcuata graceae Bakus 1966    [SEM]

BC‑Wash,CCal; shallow; [Burtonanchora lacunosa OF de Laubenfels; in Antho per Systema Porifera p. 456]; *Carmel Bay, Cal:WCA/WLee*


Artemisina archegona Ristau 1978

CCal; shallow


Axocielita originalis (de Laubenfels 1930)

SAlask-BC‑BajaCal; littoral; [Esperiopsis; Axocielita hartmani Simpson 1966; in Clathria by some] *Smith I, Alask:WCA*


Clathria species of Hartman 1975

CCal; littoral


?Dictyociona  asodes (de Laubenfels 1930)

BC,CCal; littoral; [Eurypon; Holorodesmia; Hymedesmia; Leptoclathria; in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 437] *Anthony I, BC:WCA *


Microciona microjoanna de Laubenfels 1930

Wash,C‑SCal; littoral [in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 440]


Microciona parthena de Laubenfels 1930  [SEM]

C-SCal; littoral  [in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 440]


Microciona primitiva Koltun 1955

BC,BerS; shallow; [in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 440] *Knight Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Microciona prolifera (Ellis & Solander 1786)     [SEM]

Intro Wash, CCal; Atl; littoral; [in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 440] *Willapa Bay, Wash:J Carlton*


Ophlitaspongia pennata (Lambe 1895)

NWPac, BC‑SCal-Mex; littoral; [Desmacella; Biemna; Tylodesma,  in Echinoclathria per Systema Porifera p. 467]


Thalysias laevigata (Lambe 1893)

BC,Jap; shallow; [Clathria (laevigata) per systema porifera p. 447]


?Wilsonella  pseudonapya de Laubenfels 1930

CCal; littoral [Clathriopsamma; in Clathria per Systema Porifera p. 439]



Family  Raspailiidae [including Euryponidae]

Eurypon sp. cf. clavata  (Bowerbank 1874)

BC; shallow; *Saanich Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Eurypon? species

BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Hemectyon hyle de Laubenfels 1930  [SEM]

BC, SCal‑Mex; shallow; [in Endectyon per Systema Porif. p. 485] *Flamingo Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Hymeraphia stellifera Bowerbank 1866    [SEM]

BC, NAtl; shallow; *off Moreton I, BC:WCA/BO*


Tricheurypon species

       Cobb Sea Mount 290m  [in Euypon per Systema Porifera p.488]



Family Rhabderemiidae




Suborder LATRUNCULINA [per Porifera Systema 2002; in Hadromerida by some]

Family Latrunculiidae

Latrunculia (Biannulata) austini Samaai & Gibbons, Kelly 2006

BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Latrunculia species cf. tricincta Hentschel 1929   [SEM]

          Wash; deep; *Endeavor Ridge, off Wash:WCA/BO*




Order HAPLOSCLERIDA  [undergoing major revisions which not all reflected below at this time]


Family Calcifibrospongidae



Family Callyspongiidae [in Chalinidae by some]



Family Chalinidae [incl. Haliclonidae, Renieridae, Adociidae]

Adocia dubia Ristau 1978

NCal; littoral  [Haliclona (Haliclona) per Systema Porifera p. 863]


Adocia gellindra (de Laubenfels 1932

BC‑Mex;   littoral; [Haliclona (Halichoclona) per Systema Porifera p. 862];

*Execution Rock, BC:WCA/BO*


?Adocia species cf. Reniera foraminosa Topsent 1904

BC; littoral; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*  [Haliclona (Haliclona) per Systema Porifera p. 863]


Cladocroce species cf. gaussiana(Hentschel 1914)

BC; shallow; *Dixon Entrance, BC:WCA/BO* [Toxiclona]


Haliclona ecbasisde Laubenfels 1930

SCal; littoral; [Acervochalina; non H. ecbasis of Fell 1970]


Haliclona oculata (Pallas 1766)

Alask‑BC; shallow; *Ucluelet, BC:WCA/BO*


Haliclona species A (of Hartman 1975)    [SEM]

SAlask-BC‑SCal; littoral; [H. permollis OF Hartman 1954,  OF de Laubenfels 1961 Haliclona (Reniera cinerea per Systema Porifera p. 868]  *Smith I, Alask:WCA


Haliclona species B (of Hartman 1975)

BC, CCal; littoral; [=? Haliclona ecbasis OF Fell 1970, non de Laubenfels 19301 *Tsawwassen, BC: BO


Haliclona species cf. loosanoffi  Hartman 1958

        BC, littoral  *Gibralter I,  BC:WCA [Chalinula be some]


Orina species cf. Gellius ravus Stephens 1912

BC; littoral; *Ross Islets, BC:WCA/BO* [Haliclona (Gellius) per Systema Porifera p. 859]


Prianos problematicus de Laubenfels 1930    [SEM]

CCal; shallow  [in Haliclona (Reniera) per Systema Porifera p. 867 ]


Prianos species aff. problematicus de Laubenfels 1930 in Haliclona (Reniera) per

       Systema Porifera p. 867]; BC; shallow; *Self Point, Barkley Sd., BC:WCA/BO*


Reniera mollis Lambe 1893    [SEM]

BC; littoral  [Haliclona (Reniera) per Systema Porifera] 


Reniera rufescens Lambe 1893   [SEM]

NWPac‑Alask; shallow


Reniera species A  of Hartman 1975   [SEM]

         BC.  CCal;  littoral [may = Adocia gellindra in part]


Reniera species B of Hartman 1975

BC,CCal; littoral; *Execution Rock BC:WCA/BO*


Reniera species C

BC; shallow; *Meandering form, Jervis, BC:WCA/BO*


Reniera species  D

BC; shallow; *on Hinnites, Str. Georgia, BC:WCA*


Sigmadocia edaphus (de Laubenfels 1930)    [SEM]

BC‑GulfCal; littoral; [Haliclona (Gellius) per Systema Porifera p. 859]  *Execution Rock, BC:WCA/BD*


Sigmadocia porosa Fristedt 1887

BerS‑BC,Atl; shallow; [Haliclona (Gellius) per Systema Porifera p. 859]  *Observatory Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Sigmadocia textapatina (de Laubenfels 1930)    [SEM]

CCal; deep; [Haliclona (Gellius) per Systema Porifera p. 859]


Sigmadocia species cf. fibulatus var. microsigma (Dendy 1916)

BC; littoral; [Haliclona (Gellius) per Systema Porifera p. 859]  *George Fraser I., BC:WCA/BO*


Sigmadocia species of Hartman 1975

BC?, CCal; littoral; [Haliclona (Gellius) per Systema Porifera p. 859]   *Horseshoe Bay, BC:WCA/BO*


Toxidocia borealis (Lambe 1894)   [SEM]

Jap‑Alask; shallow; [Toxochalina; Gellius; Patuloscula [Haliclona (Reniera) per Systema Porifera p. 867]


Toxidocia zumi Ristau 1978

C‑SCal; shallow   [Haliclona (Reniera) per Systema Porifera p. 867]


Toxidocia species of Hartman 1975

CCal; littoral  [Haliclona (Reniera) per Systema Porifera p. 867]


Toxidocia species A   [SEM]

BC; shallow; [Haliclona (Reniera) per Systema Porifera p. 867]  *Dixon Entrance, BC:WCA/BO*


Toxidocia species C

BC; deep; [Haliclona (Reniera) per Systema Porifera p. 867]   *Saanich Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Family Niphatidae [in Haliclonidae by some]

Pachychalina species cf. Haliclona lunisimilis de Laubenfels 1930   [SEM]

BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA/BO*


Pachychalina species

BC; shallow *Globose form, Edward King 1, BC:WCA/BO*


Pachychalina species cf. schmidti (Lundbeck 1902)

BC; shallow; *Egmont, BC:WCA/80*





Family Petrosiidae [Nepheliospongiidae; in Haliclonidae by some]

Densa species?

BC; shallow; *Pt. Upwood, BC:WCA/BO* [in genus Xestospongia per Systema Porifera p. 916]


Neopetrosia vanilla (de Laubenfels 1930)     [SEM]

BC‑BajaCal; littoral; [Xestospongia Haliclona]l; *Execution Rock BC:WCA/BO*


Xestospongia diprosopia (de Laubenfels 1930)

CCal; deep; [Haliclona  may = X. coralloides Dendy 1924]


Xestospongia trindanea Ristau 1978

BC‑CCal; littoral; *Masterman I, BC:WCA/BO*


Xestospongia hispida (Ridley & Dandy 1886) OF Lambe 1895

SAlask; [Petrosia; =?X. trindanea Ristau 1978] 



Family Phloeodictyidae  [including Oceanapiidae]

Calyx new species

         BC;  shallow;  *Edward King I, BC; shallow, N. McDaniel  


Oceanapia new species

         BC, shallow [Phloeodictyon]  *Execution Rock Cave, BC: WCA    





Family  Dysideidae [may be transferred to Dendroceratida per P. Berquist]

Dysidea amblia de Laubenfels 1930

C–S Cal; littoral


Dysidea fragilis (Montagu 1818)

BC; nearly Cosmo; littoral; *Execution Rock, BC:WCA*


Pleraplysilla  new species

BC; littoral; *Botanical Beach, BC: WCA*  [white/ivory form of Aplysilla glacialis of authors in NE Pacific  [in Pleraplysilla based on foreign material in the fibers]



Family Irciniidae



Family Spongiidae



Family  Thorectidae

Luffariella idea (de Laubenfels 1932)

CCal;  littoral; [Spongia,  Leiosella].  [The combined characters of: absence of dermal armor; primary but not secondary fibers filled with foreign material; and a tertiary fiber skeleton fit the diagnosis for the genus Luffariella]




Family  Darwinellidae  (Aplysillidae)

Aplysilla  new species (Merejkowsky 1878)

Alask‑CCal ,N Atl, Australia , S Am; littoral,  [Aplysilla glacialis of authors in NE Pacific]


Chelonaplysilla polyraphis (de Laubenfels 1930)

BC‑SCal, WPac; littoral; *Checleset Bay, BC:WCA*  [transfer to Chelonaplysilla based on presence of  foreign material  forming a reticulation in cortex;  spicules rather than sand grains are the source]



Family Dictyodendrillidae

Spongionella new species

     NCal, Oreg, BC,  littoral 




Family Halisarcidae

Halisarca sacra de Laubenfels 1930

BC‑SCal; littoral; [may = H. dujardini Johnson 18421; *Portland Canal, BC:WCA*




Family Aplysinellidae


Family Aplysinidae


Family Ianthellidae?                                              

Hexadella new species

BC; shallow; *Jervis Inlet, BC:WCA*


Family Pseudoceratinidae








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